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新课标高中英语语法完全突破学习笔记本
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第一讲:名词

一、名词的分类

 

名词

___________________

普通名词

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

1. 专有名词

表示____________________________________________________

如: Tom, Peking University, the United Nations

特性:

__________________________________________

__________________________________________

2. 普通名词

泛指__________________________________________

如: student, actor, money

分为:

可数名词  如:_________________________

不可数名词 如:__________________________________

   可数名词包括:

个体名词________________________________________________

如:garden, actor, hammer

集体名词________________________________________________

如:family, class, staff, team

   集体名词做主语时谓语动词用单数还是复数?

        如:My class _______________(be) rather noisy yesterday.

The audience_ _____________________________________________

The staff is/are against the plan.

强调集体:动词用__________

如:His family is very large-he has three sons and two daughters.

强调个体:动词用_________     

如:My family ______________________.

有些集体名词做主语时动词只用复数:    ________________________________

如:The police ______________________________.

The cattle_______________________________________

   不可数名词包括:

物质名词:表示__________________________________________

如: cotton, water, ink, wood

抽像名词:表示_______________________________________________

如:_______________________________________________________

   物质名词的特殊情况

1. 有些可用作可数名词表示:________________________

如:_____________________________________

He can’t drink much. _____________________________________.

_________________________________________________

2. 部分物质名词的复数形式__________________

如:The island _________________________________________.

waters__________________________         

Villagers are __________________________________________________.

rains 雨季     sands沙滩       woods森林

 

部分物质/抽象名词可作个体名词,但含义不同

.名词的数

1. 规则名词复数的构成

(1) ___________

如:cook—_____________, canal—_____________, monkey—______________

(2) __________________________

如:bus—_____________, brush—_____________, coach—_____________

      注意:以s结尾的专有名词:_____________

如:Charles-______________________

(3) ________________________

如:story—_____________, county—_____________

注意:

以元音字母+y结尾:_______________

如:

boy—_____________, ray_____________, bay—_____________

      y结尾的专有名词:____________________

如:Mary—_______________

January—______________________

(4) o结尾的名词。

__________________

        如:radio—_____________, photo—_____________, kilo—_____________, zoo—_____________,  piano—_____________, bamboo—_____________, studio—_____________

__________________

mosquito_____________, hero—_____________

tomato—_____________, potato—_____________,

两种情况均可
zero—___________________, motto—_____________________,

volcano—__________________________

(5) f/fe结尾的词

________________________________

如:___________________________________________________________________

 

________________________

如:roof—_____________, gulf—_____________, safe—_____________,

chief—_____________, belief—_____________, cliff—_____________

grief—_____________, proof—_____________

个别有__________________  

如:scarf —_____________handkerchief—_______________________________,

hoof—_____________, dwarf—_____________  

2.不规则名词复数的构成

(1) ________________

如: man—_____________, goose—_____________, tooth—_____________

(2) ________________

如:_______________________________________________________

(3) ____________________

如:mouse—_____________,  child—_____________,    medium—_____________,

bacterium—_____________, ox—_____________, phenomenon—_____________

3. 复合名词复数的构成

(1) _____________________________________

如:shoe-repairer—_________________,      mother-in-law—____________________,

passer-by—_________________,    looker-on—____________________

editor-in-chief—_____________________,     green-hand—____________________

(2) _____________________________

如:forget-me-not—_____________, good-for-nothing—_____________

merry-go-round—____________________,    press-up—____________________

has-been—_________________

(3) ________________________________________________________

如:man cook—_____________, woman writer—_____________

注意:boy/girl student—_________________

4. 字母、符号、数字等__________

如:______________________________________________

      ______________________________________________

5. “某国人”的单复数变化:

 

___________________________________________________

如:

Chinese—_____________     Japanese—_____________    Swiss—_____________

Englishman—_____________ Frenchman—_____________  

American—_____________   Australian—_____________ Canadian—_____________

Korean—_____________      Russian—_____________     Indian—_____________

German—_____________

注意

1. 有些名词习惯以复数形式出现:

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

2. 部分名词在短语中习惯以复数形式出现:

      ______________________情绪高昂/低落

      ______________________为……做准备

      ______________________轮流(做某事)

      ______________________努力做某事

      ______________________收支平衡

      ______________________同……保持联系

      ______________________修理;修补

三.名词所有格

名词所有格表示_______________

如:________________________________________

          

1.s所有格

 (1) 构成

在名词后加_________,词尾有______________________

如:________________________________________________________________________    
注意:________________________________________________

(2) 运用

多用于_________________________________

         如:______________________________________

也可用于________________________________________________________

         如:______________________________________________________

             ______________________________________________________

_______________________________

比较

          ________________________________

          ________________________________

(3) ’s所有格后名词的省略

_______________________________

如:_____________________________________.

______________________________________________________

如:_______________________________________

             _______________________________________

2. of所有格

多用于_____________________

如:________________________________________

    __________________________________

也可用于______________________

如:______________________________________________

    _________________________________________________

(3). s所有格和of所有格的比较

_____________________________

如:the name of that plant=_________________________,

senior members of the club=____________________________________

_________________________________

如:______________________,  _________________________

________________________________________________________

如:________________________________, _________________________________

 

 3. 双重所有格

双重所有格:_____________________________________________________________

如:______________________________ _________________________________

 

. 不可数名词的量化表达

 (1) _____________________________________________________________________等表示

如:

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

 

(2). _______________

如:

__________________________________________________________________

(3) ___________________

__________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

.名词的语法功能

1. __________

如:______________________________.

2. __________

如:I like _______________.

         _____________________________.

3. ___________

如:___________________________.

4. ___________

如:____________________________.

5. _____________

如:____________________________.

注意:______________________________________________________________

如:_________________________________________________________________________

6. _____________

如:__________________________.

         __________________________.

7. 名词作定语的注意事项:

(1) _____________________________

如:__________________________________________

(2) ______________________________________________________

如:______________________________________________________

    ______________________________________________________

   _________________________________________________________

注意:_________________________________________

(3) _______________________

如:__________________________________________________________________________ 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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